Immune environment modulation in pneumonia patients caused by coronavirus: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2

Zhixian Yao, Zhong Zheng, Ke Wu, Zheng Junhua
Aging 2020 May 2, 12
Currently, we are on a global pandemic of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) which causes fever, dry cough, fatigue and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that may ultimately lead to the death of the infected. Current researches on COVID-19 continue to highlight the necessity for further understanding the virus-host synergies. In this study, we have highlighted the key cytokines induced by coronavirus infections. We have demonstrated that genes coding interleukins (Il-1α, Il-1β, Il-6, Il-10), chemokine (Ccl2, Ccl3, Ccl5, Ccl10), and interferon (Ifn-α2, Ifn-β1, Ifn2) upsurge significantly which in line with the elevated infiltration of T cells, NK cells and monocytes in SARS-Cov treated group at 24 hours. Also, interleukins (IL-6, IL-23α, IL-10, IL-7, IL-1α, IL-1β) and interferon (IFN-α2, IFN2, IFN-γ) have increased dramatically in MERS-Cov at 24 hours. A similar cytokine profile showed the cytokine storm served a critical role in the infection process. Subsequent investigation of 463 patients with COVID-19 disease revealed the decreased amount of total lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the severe type patients which indicated COVID-19 can impose hard blows on human lymphocyte resulting in lethal pneumonia. Thus, taking control of changes in immune factors could be critical in the treatment of COVID-19.

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