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Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prone Position on Intraocular Pressure in Adults Undergoing Surgery.

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing surgery in the prone position may be at risk for postoperative vision loss associated with increased intraocular pressure. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to estimate the magnitude of the increase in intraocular pressure at specific perioperative time points in adult patients. The research question to be addressed is "What is the magnitude of the increase in intraocular pressure at specific perioperative time points in adults undergoing surgery in the prone position?"

METHODS: Comprehensive search strategies were used to identify nine eligible studies (N = 229). Standardized mean difference effect sizes were calculated for two intraoperative time points.Time points for meta-analysis were selected to achieve the greatest number of comparisons for analysis at each time point. Prediction intervals for each time point were also calculated to show the dispersion of true effect sizes around the mean.

RESULTS: Meta-analysis showed that intraocular pressure increased significantly between induction of anesthesia and up to 10 minutes of prone position (T1: standardized mean difference [ d ] = 2.55; P < .001) and continued to increase significantly until the end of the prone position (T2: d = 3.44; P = .002).

CONCLUSIONS: Intraocular pressure increases of this magnitude demonstrate the need for implementing interventions to reduce the risk for postoperative vision loss in patients undergoing surgery in the prone position.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Implementing preoperative ophthalmologic examinations for patients undergoing surgery in the prone position may help to reduce the risk for ocular injury. Intraoperative interventions that can be implemented to reduce or mitigate the increase in intraocular pressure include implementing a 5- to 10-degree reverse Trendelenburg prone position, reducing the amount of time the patient is in the prone position, considering staged procedures, monitoring intraocular pressure, providing periodic position changes or rest periods, preventing pressure on the eye, and administering specific medications or anesthetics.

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