Burden of Arrhythmias in Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock

Saraschandra Vallabhajosyula, Sri Harsha Patlolla, Dhiran Verghese, Lina Ya'Qoub, Vinayak Kumar, Anna V Subramaniam, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Pranathi R Sundaragiri, Peter A Noseworthy, Siva K Mulpuru, Malcolm R Bell, Bernard J Gersh, Abhishek J Deshmukh
American Journal of Cardiology 2020 June 15, 125 (12): 1774-1781
There are limited data on arrhythmias in acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS). Using a 17-year AMI-CS population from the National Inpatient Sample, we identified common arrhythmias - atrial fibrillation (AF), atrial flutter, supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and atrioventricular blocks (AVB). Admissions with concomitant cardiac surgery were excluded. Outcomes of interest included temporal trends, predictors, in-hospital mortality, and resource utilization in cohorts with and without arrhythmias. Of the 420,319 admissions with AMI-CS during 2000 to 2016, arrhythmias were noted in 213,718 (51%). AF (45%), ventricular tachycardia (35%) and ventricular fibrillation (30%) were the most common arrhythmias. Compared with those without, the cohort w`ith arrhythmias was more often male, of white race, with ST-segment elevation AMI-CS presentation, and had higher rates of cardiac arrest and acute organ failure (all p <0.001). Temporal trends of prevalence revealed a stable trend of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and declining trend in AVB. The cohort with arrhythmias had higher unadjusted (42% vs 41%; odds ratio [OR] 1.03 [95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.05]; p <0.001), but not adjusted (OR 1.01 [95% CI 0.99 to 1.03]; p = 0.22) in-hospital mortality compared with those without. The cohort with arrhythmias had longer hospital stay (9 ± 10 vs 7 ± 9 days; p <0.001) and higher hospitalization costs ($124,000 ± 146,000 vs $91,000 ± 115,000; p <0.001). In the cohort with arrhythmias, older age, female sex, non-white race, higher co-morbidity, presence of acute organ failure, and cardiac arrest, predicted higher in-hospital mortality. In conclusion, cardiac arrhythmias in AMI-CS are a marker of higher illness severity and are associated with greater resource utilization.

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