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Infective Endocarditis: A Contemporary Review.

Infective endocarditis (IE), initially described more than 350 years ago, involves infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. The clinical manifestations of IE can involve every organ system, and the cardiac manifestations can include valvular vegetation, abscess, periannular extension of infection, and myopericarditis. Echocardiography is crucial in the diagnosis of IE, but alternative imaging modalities are playing an increasing role in the diagnosis and management of IE. Multidisciplinary care is imperative to the management of IE, often requiring the expertise of cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, infectious diseases specialists, radiologists, and neurologists. We performed a literature search of the PubMed database from January 1st, 2000, to September 30th, 2019, using the terms infective endocarditis, diagnosis, and management to find the most pertinent and highest-quality evidence. This review summarizes key aspects of IE, with a focus on emerging advances in diagnosis. We also highlight growing patient populations at risk for IE, including patients with intracardiac devices and congenital heart disease.

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