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Coronavirus Infections and Type 2 Diabetes-Shared Pathways with Therapeutic Implications.

Endocrine Reviews 2020 June 2
Individuals with diabetes are at increased risk for bacterial, mycotic, parasitic, and viral infections. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 (also referred to as COVID-19) coronavirus pandemic highlights the importance of understanding shared disease pathophysiology potentially informing therapeutic choices in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Two coronavirus receptor proteins, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) are also established transducers of metabolic signals and pathways regulating inflammation, renal and cardiovascular physiology, and glucose homeostasis. Moreover, glucose-lowering agents such as the DPP4 inhibitors, widely used in subjects with T2D, are known to modify the biological activities of multiple immunomodulatory substrates. Here, we review the basic and clinical science spanning the intersections of diabetes, coronavirus infections, ACE2, and DPP4 biology, highlighting clinical relevance and evolving areas of uncertainty underlying the pathophysiology and treatment of T2D in the context of coronavirus infection.

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