Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Radial Pronation Angle: A Novel Radiological Evaluation Index of Congenital Proximal Radioulnar Synostosis.

INTRODUCTION: Congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis (CPRUS) is a relatively rare forearm deformity that is characterized by a fixed pronated forearm of varying severity. The osseous synostosis between the proximal part of the ulna and the radius can be seen on the X-ray images in most cases. Many researchers have attempted to identify methods to measure the disease severity to guide in the treatment of CPRUS. However, to describe the overall deformity, the use of multiple indicators is essential, and some of these measurements require special software or need to be conducted on cadavers.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to introduce the radius pronation angle (RPA), a novel radiological evaluation index of CPRUS, and analyze the relationship between the RPA and the severity of the deformity.

METHODS: Three-dimensional models of 43 CPRUS forearms (19 left forearms and 24 right forearms) of 32 patients (23 males and 9 females; average age was 6 years 8 months; range, from 1.5 to 27 years) treated at Beijing Ji Shui Tan Hospital during 2016 to 2019 were reconstructed using a computer-assisted technique. The special flexed posterior-anterior views of the X-ray image (the f-PA view) of the forearms were obtained, and the forearm rotation angle and the ulnar inner rotation angle were measured on each forearm. The RPA was measured on the f-PA view, and the lengths of the osseous synostosis, ulna, and the radial head were measured on the computed tomography scan images using the multiplanar reconstruction function. The Pearson index was analyzed between the RPA and the other measurements.

RESULTS: The RPAs were correlated with the forearm rotation angle, ulnar inner rotation angle, relative length of the osseous synostosis, and the relative length of the radial head (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The RPA can be measured quickly and easily on the f-PA view of the X-ray image and can be used as a reliable indicator of the severity of CPRUS.

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