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Neuroinflammatory Markers in the Serum of Prepubertal Children with Down Syndrome.

Down Syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal disorder. Although DS individuals are mostly perceived as characterized by some distinct physical features, cognitive disabilities, and cardiac defects, they also show important dysregulations of immune functions. While critical information is available for adults with DS, little literature is available on the neuroinflammation in prepubertal DS children. We aimed to evaluate in prepubertal DS children the serum levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), oxidative stress as free oxygen radicals defense (FORD), free oxygen radicals test (FORT), and cytokines playing key roles in neuroinflammation and oxidative processes as TNF- α , TGF- β , MCP-1, IL-1 α , IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12. No differences were found in NGF between DS children and controls. However, BDNF was higher in DS subjects compared to controls. We also did not reveal changes in FORD and FORT. Quite interestingly, the serum of DS children disclosed a marked decrease in all analyzed cytokines with evident differences in serum cytokine presence between male and female DS children. In conclusion, the present study evidences in DS prepubertal children a disruption in the neurotrophins and immune system pathways.

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