Relative Bioavailability of Budesonide/Glycopyrrolate/Formoterol Fumarate Metered Dose Inhaler Administered With and Without a Spacer: Results of a Phase I, Randomized, Crossover Trial in Healthy Adults

Paul Dorinsky, Paolo DePetrillo, Kiernan DeAngelis, Roopa Trivedi, Patrick Darken, Michael Gillen
Clinical Therapeutics 2020, 42 (4): 634-648

PURPOSE: The triple combination therapy budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate in a metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI), formulated by using innovative co-suspension delivery technology, is a new inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting muscarinic antagonist/long-acting β2 -agonist fixed-dose combination for the maintenance treatment of COPD. For some patients, the use of an MDI may be optimized with a spacer. This Phase I study assessed the effect of a spacer on lung exposure, total systemic exposure, and safety of BGF MDI 320/36/9.6 μg in healthy subjects.

METHODS: This randomized, open-label, crossover study assessed the pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of BGF MDI in healthy adult subjects who received a single dose of BGF MDI 320/36/9.6 μg (administered as 2 inhalations with 160/18/4.8 μg per actuation) in 4 regimens: without spacer and no charcoal; with spacer and no charcoal; without spacer and with charcoal; and with spacer and with charcoal. Primary objectives were to assess total systemic exposure (without charcoal) and lung exposure (with charcoal) of budesonide, glycopyrronium, and formoterol administered as BGF MDI with and without a spacer. Safety was also assessed.

FINDINGS: In total, 56 subjects were randomized (mean age, 29.9 years; 60.7% male, 17.9% former smokers). For systemic exposure (without charcoal), the spacer/without spacer ratio, expressed as a percentage (intrasubject %CV) of Cmax and AUC0-tlast , respectively, was 152.0 (47.5) and 132.8 (43.6) for budesonide, 240.6 (80.2) and 154.7 (73.4) for glycopyrronium, and 165.6 (50.7) and 98.6 (53.8) for formoterol. For lung exposure (with charcoal), the spacer/without spacer ratio percentage (%CV) of Cmax and AUC0-tlast , respectively, was 183.6 (65.9) and 198.4 (71.5) for budesonide, 262.0 (91.8) and 373.9 (120.7) for glycopyrronium, and 222.9 (56.3) and 385.2 (147.0) for formoterol. Subjects who were judged to have suboptimal inhalation technique without a spacer (those in the lowest drug exposure quartile based on AUC0-tlast ) had the greatest increase in both total systemic and lung exposure when a spacer was used versus no spacer. Subjects in the highest quartile had a minimal change in both total systemic and lung exposure when the spacer was used. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) (all mild/moderate) reported by >1 subject per regimen were headache, cough, and dizziness. One subject withdrew because of TEAEs of headache and presyncope (neither considered treatment-related).

IMPLICATIONS: Drug delivery can be improved for subjects with suboptimal MDI inhalation technique when using a spacer device with BGF MDI triple therapy. identifier: NCT03311373.

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