Revascularization for Coronary Artery Disease: Principle and Challenges

Dachuan Gu, Jianyu Qu, Heng Zhang, Zhe Zheng
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 2020, 1177: 75-100
Coronary revascularization is the most important strategy for coronary artery disease. This review summarizes the current most prevalent approaches for coronary revascularization and discusses the evidence on the mechanisms, indications, techniques, and outcomes of these approaches. Targeting coronary thrombus, fibrinolysis is indicated for patients with diagnosed myocardial infarction and without high risk of severe hemorrhage. The development of fibrinolytic agents has improved the outcomes of ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Percutaneous coronary intervention has become the most frequently performed procedure for coronary artery disease. The evolution of stents plays an important role in the result of the procedure. Coronary artery bypass grafting is the most effective revascularization approach for stenotic coronary arteries. The choice of conduits and surgical techniques are important determinants of patient outcomes. Multidisciplinary decision-making should analyze current evidence, considering the clinical condition of patients, and determine the safety and necessity for coronary revascularization with either PCI or CABG. For coronary artery disease with more complex lesions like left main disease and multivessel disease, CABG results in more complete revascularization than PCI. Furthermore, comorbidities, such as heart failure and diabetes, are always correlated with adverse clinical events, and a routine invasive strategy should be recommended. For patients under revascularization, secondary prevention therapies are also of important value for the prevention of subsequent adverse events.

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