BRAF V600E-mutated metastatic pediatric Wilms tumor with complete response to targeted RAF/MEK inhibition

Patience Obasaju, Shubin Shahab, Emily Dunn, Daniel S Rhee, LiQun Jiang, Jeffrey S Dome, Alan D Friedman, Pedram Argani, Christine A Pratilas
Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies 2020, 6 (2)
Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common renal malignancy of childhood and accounts for 6% of all childhood malignancies. With current therapies, the 5-yr overall survival (OS) for children with unilateral favorable histology WT is greater than 85%. The prognosis is worse, however, for the roughly 15% of patients who relapse, with only 50%-80% OS reported in those with recurrence. Herein, we describe the extended and detailed clinical course of a rare case of a child with recurrent, pulmonary metastatic, favorable histology WT harboring a BRAF V600E mutation. The BRAF V600E mutation, commonly found in melanoma and other cancers, and previously undescribed in WT, has recently been reported by our group in a subset of epithelial-predominant WT. This patient, who was included in that series, presented with unilateral, stage 1, favorable histology WT and was treated with standard chemotherapy. Following the completion of therapy, the patient relapsed with pulmonary metastatic disease, that then again recurred despite an initial response to salvage chemotherapy and radiation. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) on the metastatic pulmonary nodule revealed a BRAF V600E mutation. After weighing the therapeutic options, a novel approach with dual BRAF/MEK inhibitor combination therapy was initiated. Complete radiographic response was observed following 4 months of therapy with dabrafenib and trametinib. At 12 months following the start of BRAF/MEK combination treatment, the patient continues with a complete response and has experienced minimal treatment-related side effects. This represents the first case, to our knowledge, of effective treatment with BRAF/MEK molecularly targeted therapy in a pediatric Wilms tumor patient.

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