JOURNAL ARTICLE

Isopetasin and S-isopetasin as novel P-glycoprotein inhibitors against multidrug-resistant cancer cells

Sara Abdelfatah, Madeleine Böckers, Maitane Asensio, Onat Kadioglu, Anette Klinger, Edmond Fleischer, Thomas Efferth
Phytomedicine 2020 March 10, : 153196
32229058

BACKGROUND: A major problem of cancer treatment is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapy. MDR is caused by different mechanisms such as the expression of the ABC-transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1, ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2). These transporters efflux xenobiotic toxins, including chemotherapeutics, and they were found to be overexpressed in different cancer types.

PURPOSE: Identification of novel molecules that overcome MDR by targeting ABC-transporters.

METHODS: Resazurin reduction assay was used for cytotoxicity test. AutoDock 4.2. was used for molecular docking. The function of P-gp and BCRP was tested using a doxorubicin uptake assay and an ATPase assay. ROS generation was detected using flow cytometry for the measurement of H2 DCFH-DA fluorescence. Annexin/PI staining was applied for the detection of apoptosis. Bioinformatic analyses were performed using LigandScout 3.12. software and DataWarrior software.

RESULTS: In our search for new molecules that selectively act against resistant phenotypes, we identified isopetasin and S-isopetasin, which are bioactive natural products from Petasites formosanus. They exerted collateral sensitivity towards leukemia cells with high P-gp expression in CEM/ADR5000 cells, compared to sensitive wild-type CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Also, they revealed considerable activity towards breast cancer cells overexpressing breast cancer resistance protein, MDA-MB-231-BCRP clone 23. This motivated us to investigate whether the function of P-gp was inhibited. In-silico results showed the compounds bound with high affinity and interacted with key amino acid residues in P-gp . Then, we found that the two compounds increased doxorubicin accumulation in P-gp overexpressing CEM/ADR5000 by three-fold compared to cells without inhibitor. P-gp-mediated drug efflux was ATP-dependent. Isopetasin and S-isopetasin increased the ATPase activity of human P-gp in a comparable fashion as verapamil used as control P-gp inhibitor. As isopetasin and S-isopetasin exerted dual roles, first as cytotoxic compounds and then as P-gp inhibitors, we suggested that their P-gp inhibition is part of a larger complex of mechanisms to induce cell death in cancer patients. P-gp dysfunction induces mitochondrial stress to generate ATP. Upon continuing stress by P-gp inhibition, the mitochondria generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Initially established for verapamil, this theory was validated in the present study for isopetasin and S-isopetasin, as treatment with the two candidates increased ROS levels in CEM/ADR5000 cells followed by apoptosis.

CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the importance of isopetasin and S-isopetasin as novel ROS-generating and apoptosis-inducing P-gp inhibitors.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
32229058
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"