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A specific role of magnetic isotopes in biological and ecological systems. Physics and biophysics beyond

Anatoly L Buchachenko, Alexander A Bukhvostov, Kirill V Ermakov, Dmitry A Kuznetsov
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 2020 March 26
32224188
The great diversity of molecular processes in chemistry, physics, and biology exhibits universal property: they are controlled by powerful factor, angular momentum. Conservation of angular momentum (electron spin) is a fundamental and universal principle: all molecular processes are spin selective, they are allowed only for those spin states of reactants whose total spin is identical to that of products. Magnetic catalysis induced by magnetic interactions is a powerful and universal means to overcome spin prohibition and to control physical, chemical and biochemical processes. Contributing almost nothing in total energy, being negligibly small, magnetic interactions are the only ones which are able to change electron spin of reactants and switch over the processes between spin-allowed and spin-forbidden channels, controlling pathways and chemical reactivity in molecular processes. The main source of magnetic and electromagnetic effects in biological systems is now generally accepted and demonstrated in this paper to be radical pair mechanism which implies pairwise generation of radicals in biochemical reactions. This mechanism was convincingly established for enzymatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and desoxynucleic acid (DNA) synthesis by using catalyzing metal ions with magnetic nuclei (25 Mg, 43 Ca, 67 Zn) and supported by magnetic field effects on these reactions. The mechanism, is shown to function in medicine as a medical remedy or technology (trans-cranial magnetic stimulation, nuclear magnetic control of the ATP synthesis in heart muscle, the killing of cancer cells by suppression of DNA synthesis). However, the majority of magnetic effects in biology remain to be irreproducible, contradictory, and enigmatic. Three sources of such a state are shown in this paper to be: the presence of paramagnetic metal ions as a component of enzymatic site or as an impurity in an uncontrollable amount; the property of the radical pair mechanism to function at a rather high concentration of catalyzing metal ions, when at least two ions enter into the catalytic site; and the kinetic restrictions, which imply compatibility of chemical and spin dynamics in radical pair. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the reliable sources of magnetic effects, to elucidate the reasons of their inconsistency, to show how and at what conditions magnetic effects exhibit themselves and how they may be controlled, switched on and off, taking into account not only biological and madical but some geophysical and environmental aspects as well.

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