[Value of laparoscopy in blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma-a systematic review]

Christian Beltzer, Robert Bachmann, Jens Strohäker, Steffen Axt, Roland Schmidt, Markus Küper, Alfred Königsrainer
Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen 2020, 91 (7): 567-575

BACKGROUND: The range of indications for laparoscopic procedures has been continuously widened in recent years. At the same time, however, the diagnostic and therapeutic role of laparoscopy in the management of blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma remains controversial.

METHODS: A systematic literature search was carried out in PubMed from 2008 to 2019 on the use of laparoscopy in blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma. Studies were analyzed in terms of relevant operative and perioperative event rates (rate of missed injuries, conversion rate, postoperative complication rate). On the basis of this analysis, an algorithm for the use of laparoscopy in abdominal trauma was developed for clinical practice.

RESULTS: A total of 15 full texts with 5869 patients were found. With a rate of 1.4%, laparoscopically missed injuries were very rare for both penetrating and blunt abdominal trauma. Of all trauma laparoscopies 29.3% were converted to open surgery (laparotomy). Among the non-converted laparoscopies 60.5% were therapeutic. Complications occurred after trauma laparoscopy in 8.6% of cases.

CONCLUSION: By means of systematic laparoscopic exploration, missed injuries in abdominal trauma are extremely rare, so that concerns in this respect no longer seem justified. A large proportion of intra-abdominal injuries can be treated using laparoscopy or laparoscopically assisted procedures.

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