Crotalus neutralising factor and its role in human leukocyte modulation

Maria Naiara Macedo Tavares, Valdison Pereira Reis, Cristina Matiele Alves Rego, Mauro Valentino Paloschi, Hallison Mota Santana, Alex Augusto Ferreira E Ferreira, Milena Daniela Souza Silva, Sulamita Silva Setúbal, Consuelo Latorre Fortes-Dias, Juliana Pavan Zuliani
Immunobiology 2020 March 12, : 151932
Crotalus neutralising factor (CNF) is an endogenous γ-type phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) inhibitor that inhibits the toxic action of crotoxin, a neurotoxin present in Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. However, its effects on the activation and modulation of immune cells, which play a major role in the development of inflammation, is not known. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of CNF on human leukocyte modulation in vitro by analysing the following parameters: cell viability, phagocytic capacity, lipid droplet formation, reactive oxygen species production, nitric oxide production, p38 MAPK activation, and cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2 ) gene expression. Neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors were isolated via the density gradient method, resuspended in RPMI medium, and incubated with RPMI (negative control), LPS, or PMA (positive control) or CNF (sample test) at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. Results showed that CNF was not toxic to human neutrophils after 48 and 72 h of incubation. CNF treatment induced an increase in PBMCs and neutrophil phagocytic capacity, as well as the formation of lipid droplets within these cells after 1 h of incubation. However, CNF did not induce the formation of reactive oxygen and nitric oxide species. Moreover, CNF induced p38 MAPK protein phosphorylation and cPLA2 gene expression in neutrophils. The data obtained herein showed that CNF action modulates human leukocytes, CNF activates important signalling pathways for human leukocytes, and it is pro-inflammatory. These findings also complement previous studies on CNF action on human peripheral blood leukocyte function.

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