Prevalence of comorbidities in the novel Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Jing Yang, Ya Zheng, Xi Gou, Ke Pu, Zhaofeng Chen, Qinghong Guo, Rui Ji, Haojia Wang, Yuping Wang, Yongning Zhou
International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID 2020 March 12

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of Novel Coronavirus (COVID -19) in Wuhan, China, the epidemic is more widespread than initially estimated, with cases now confirmed in multiple countries.

AIMS: The aim of the meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of comorbidities in the COVID-19 infection patients and the risk of underlying diseases in severe patients compared to non-severe patients.

METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of sciences until February 25, 2020. Risk ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random-effects models.

RESULTS: Eight studies were included in the meta- analysis, including 46248 infected patients. The result showed the most prevalent clinical symptom was fever ( 91 ± 3, 95% CI 86-97% ), followed by cough (67 ± 7, 95% CI 59-76%), fatigue ( 51 ± 0, 95% CI 34-68% ) and dyspnea ( 30 ± 4, 95% CI 21-40%). The most prevalent comorbidity were hypertension (17 ± 7, 95% CI 14-22%) and diabetes ( 8 ± 6, 95% CI 6-11% ), followed by cardiovascular diseases ( 5 ± 4, 95% CI 4-7% ) and respiratory system disease( 2 ± 0, 95% CI 1-3% ). Compared with the Non-severe patient, the pooled odds ratio of hypertension, respiratory system disease, cardiovascular disease in severe patients were (OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.46-3.83), (OR 2.46, 95% CI: 1.76-3.44) and (OR 3.42, 95% CI: 1.88-6.22)respectively.

CONCLUSION: We assessed the prevalence of comorbidities in the COVID-19 infection patients and found underlying disease, including hypertension, respiratory system disease and cardiovascular, may be a risk factor for severe patients compared with Non-severe patients.

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