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A Study Correlating the Tumor Site and Size with the Level of Axillary Lymph Node Involvement in Breast Cancer.

Background: Breast cancer is the leading cancer in women. The most common histologic type of breast cancer is infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The mainstay of the treatment of breast cancer is surgery when the tumor is localized, followed by chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy (when indicated) and in estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor positive tumors, adjuvant hormonal therapy.

Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to correlate tumor site and size with the level of axillary lymph node involvement (ALNI) in early and locally advanced breast cancer.

Materials and Methods: This prospective and observational study was conducted on fifty female patients of carcinoma breast with early and locally advanced breast cancer.

Results: The age distribution showed two peaks at 41-50 years and 51-60 years with 42 and 24 patients, respectively, in both the age groups. Preoperative lymph node positivity by ultrasonography matched with postoperative histopathological examination (HPE) report. Preoperative ultrasonographically determined tumor size was similar to the final histopathological T stage.

Conclusion: As size of tumor increases, there is an increase in ALNI which suggests that nodal metastasis is indicative of tumor chronology. Ultrasonography is a good tool to objectively measure tumor size and lymph node involvement preoperatively. Quadrant of involvement can emerge as a clinically useful prognostic cancer in breast cancer as there is a higher incidence of lymph node positivity with increasing size of the breast tumor and for tumors located at the upper outer quadrant of the breast.

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