Insulin mediated novel therapies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

Sunil Kumar Dubey, K K Lakshmi, Kowthavarapu Venkata Krishna, Mukta Agrawal, Gautam Singhvi, Ranendra Narayana Saha, Swarnalat Saraf, Shailendra Saraf, Rahul Shukla, Amit Alexander
Life Sciences 2020 March 9, : 117540
Alzheimer's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is one of the leading causes of death in the USA, along with cancer and cardiac disorders. AD is characterized by various neurological factors like amyloid plaques, tau hyperphosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, acetylcholine deficiency, etc. Together, impaired insulin signaling in the brain is also observed as essential factor to be considered in AD pathophysiology. Hence, currently researchers focused on studying the effect of brain insulin metabolism and relation of diabetes with AD. Based on the investigations, AD is also considered as type 3 or brain diabetes. Besides the traditional view of correlating AD with aging, a better understanding of various pathological factors and effects of other physical ailments is necessary to develop a promising therapeutic approach. There is a vast scope of studying the relation of systemic insulin level, insulin signaling, its neuroprotective potency and effect of diabetes on AD progression. The present work describes worldwide status of AD and its relation with diabetes mellitus and insulin metabolism; pathophysiology of AD; different metabolic pathways associating insulin metabolism with AD; insulin receptor and signaling in the brain; glucose metabolism; insulin resistance; and various preclinical and clinical studies reported insulin-based therapies to treat AD via systemic route and through direct intranasal delivery to the brain.

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