Acute hemolytic reaction due to A-B mismatched transfusion in a cat with transient AB blood type

Amie Koenig, Christina H Maglaras, Urs Giger
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 2020, 30 (3): 325-330

OBJECTIVE: To document a case of transient AB blood type indicated by immunochromatography in a type B cat following administration of an incompatible type A transfusion.

CASE SUMMARY: A 7-month-old neutered male domestic longhair cat was evaluted for anemia, pigmenturia, and intravascular hemolysis 1 day after receiving a feline whole blood transfusion. Neither blood donor nor patient had been blood-typed or crossmatched. The cat presented in shock with a severe non-regenerative anemia, hyperlactatemia, hyperbilirubinemia, hemoglobinemia, hemoglobinuria, and a positive saline slide agglutination test. Immunochromatographic blood typing tests initially indicated the cat had type AB blood, but crossmatch tests with blood from type A and type B donors suggested that the cat was type B. The cat was transfused with type B packed red blood cells without apparent complications and clinically improved. The cat's blood type reverted to type B once all the previously transfused type A cells were cleared from circulation. Furthermore, the original donor was subsequently identified as a Siamese cat and confirmed to have type A blood. While the cause of the original anemia remained unknown, the cat completely recovered and regained a normal hematocrit.

NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: This is the first documented report of transient AB blood type diagnosed using immunochromatography after a transfusion mismatch and shows the utility of crossmatching or back-typing to identify the cat's correct blood type during the hemolytic transfusion reaction.

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