Outcomes of bedside peripherally inserted central catheter placement: a retrospective study at a single institution

Sukyung Kwon, Soo Mi Son, Seul Hee Lee, Joung Hee Kim, Hyangkyoung Kim, Jang Yong Kim, Ji Il Kim, In Sung Moon
Acute and critical care 2020, 35 (1): 31-37

BACKGROUND: Bedside insertion of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) has higher rates of malposition than fluoroscopic-guided PICC placement. This study evaluated the success rate of bedside PICC placement, variations in tip location, and risk factors for malposition.

METHODS: This retrospective study included patients who underwent bedside PICC placement from January 2013 to September 2014 in a single institution. The procedure was conducted under ultrasound guidance or by a blind method. After PICC placement, tip location was determined by chest X-ray.

RESULTS: The overall venous access success rate with bedside PICC placement was 98.1% (1,302/ 1,327). There was no significant difference in the venous access success rate between ultrasound-guided placement (868/880, 98.6%) and a blind approach placement (434/447, 97.1%). Optimal tip position was achieved on the first attempt in 1,192 cases (91.6%). Repositioning was attempted in 65 patients; 60 PICCs were repositioned at the bedside, two PICCs were repositioned under fluoroscopic guidance, and three PICCs moved to the desired position without intervention. Final optimal tip position after repositioning was achieved in 1,229 (94.4%). In logistic regression analysis, five factors associated with tip malposition included female sex (Exp(B), 1.687; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.180 to 2.412; P=0.004), older age (Exp(B), 1.026; 95% CI, 1.012 to 1.039; P<0.001), cancer (Exp(B), 0.650; 95% CI, 0.455 to 0.929; P=0.018), lung disease (Exp(B), 2.416; 95% CI, 1.592 to 3.666; P<0.001), and previous catheter insertions (Exp(B), 1.262; 95% CI, 1.126 to 1.414; P<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Bedside PICC placement without fluoroscopy is effective and safe in central venous catheters. Potential risk factors associated with catheter tip malposition include older age, female sex, cancer, pulmonary disease, and previous central vein catheterizations.

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