Evaluation of in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion and assessment of drug-drug interaction of rucaparib, an orally potent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor

Mingxiang Liao, Sarah Jaw-Tsai, Jeri Beltman, Andrew D Simmons, Thomas C Harding, Jim J Xiao
Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems 2020 March 4, : 1-34
The absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor rucaparib was characterized in vitro .Rucaparib showed moderate cellular permeability, moderate human plasma protein binding (70.2%), and slow metabolism in human liver microsomes (HLMs). In HLMs, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and CYP3A contributed to the metabolism of rucaparib to its major metabolite M324 with estimated fractions of metabolism catalyzed by CYP (fm,CYP) of 0.27 and 0.64, respectively. Rucaparib reversibly inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3As (IC50 , 3.55, 12.9, 5.42, 41.6, and 17.2-22.9 µM [2 substrates], respectively), but not CYP2B6 or CYP2C8 (>190 µM). No time-dependent inhibition of any CYP was observed. In cultured human hepatocytes, rucaparib showed concentration-dependent induction of CYP1A2 mRNA and downregulation of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 mRNA. In transfected cells expressing drug transporters, rucaparib was a substrate for P-gp and BCRP, but not for OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OAT1, OAT3, or OCT2. Rucaparib inhibited P-gp and BCRP (IC50 , 169 and 55 µM, respectively) and slightly inhibited OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OAT1, and OAT3 (66%, 58%, 58%, and 42% inhibition, respectively) at 300 µM. Rucaparib inhibited OCT1, OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2-K (IC50 , 4.3, 31, 0.63, and 0.19 μM, respectively).DDI risk assessment using static models suggested potential CYP-related DDIs, with rucaparib as a perpetrator. Caution is advised when co-administering rucaparib with sensitive substrates of MATEs, OCT1, and OCT2.

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