Clinical Characteristics of Moyamoya Angiopathy in a Pediatric Cohort

Andrew R Pines, Dan Rodriguez, Bernard R Bendok, Radhika Dhamija
Journal of Child Neurology 2020 February 24, : 883073820902297

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Moyamoya angiopathy is a rare cerebral vasculopathy characterized by a progressive stenosis of the terminal portion of the internal carotid arteries and the development of abnormal collateral vessels. Children with moyamoya angiopathy become symptomatic because of cerebral ischemic complications, and many patients eventually need revascularization. In most pediatric patients with this disease, the etiology is likely genetic. We aim to report clinical characteristics of a single-center cohort of pediatric patients with moyamoya.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients <18 years with angiographically confirmed moyamoya disease evaluated at our institution. An in-house text search tool, Advanced Cohort Explorer, was used to filter electronic medical records for patients with a diagnosis of moyamoya angiopathy from January 1999 to December 2018. The inclusion criteria were age <18 years at the time of onset of disease and a diagnosis confirmed at Mayo clinic.

RESULTS: Fifty-one patients met the inclusion criteria. Fifty-five percent of our cohort were male, and the median age was 9 years. Three patients had a family history of moyamoya disease. Approximately half of our patients had bilateral disease. Sixteen patients had a genetic or chromosomal diagnosis (Down syndrome and NF1 being most common). Congenital anomalies like heart defects and renal dysplasia were also noted.

DISCUSSION: This study is unique in that it was a large study on pediatric patients with moyamoya angiopathy. It also highlights the importance of considering genetic syndromes as an underlying cause when moyamoya angiopathy starts early in life.

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