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Physical activity trends and metabolic health outcomes in people living with HIV in the US, 2008-2015

Amanda L Willig, Allison R Webel, Andrew O Westfall, Emily B Levitan, Heidi M Crane, Thomas W Buford, Greer A Burkholder, James H Willig, Aaron J Blashill, Richard D Moore, W Christopher Mathews, Anne Zinski, Josh Muhammad, Elvin H Geng, Sonia Napravnik, Joseph J Eron, Benigno Rodriguez, Marcas M Bamman, E Turner Overton
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 2020 February 11
32059838
Despite its potential to improve metabolic health outcomes, longitudinal physical activity (PA) patterns and their association with cardiometabolic disease among people living with HIV (PLWH) have not been well characterized. We investigated this relationship among PLWH in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems with at least one PA self-report between 2008 and 2015. The 4-item Lipid Research Clinics PA instrument was used to categorize habitual PA levels as: Very Low, Low, Moderate, or High. We analyzed demographic differences in PA patterns. Multivariable generalized estimating equation regression models were fit to assess longitudinal associations of PA with blood pressure, lipid, and glucose levels. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess the odds of being diagnosed with obesity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, or multimorbidity. A total of 40,462 unique PA assessments were provided by 11,719 participants. Only 13% of PLWH reported High PA, while 68% reported Very Low/Low PA at baseline and did not increase PA levels during the study period. Compared to those reporting High PA, participants with Very Low PA had almost 2-fold increased risk for CVD. Very Low PA was also associated with several risk factors associated with CVD, most notably elevated triglycerides (odds ratio 25.4), obesity (odds ratio 1.9), hypertension (odds ratio 1.4), and diabetes (odds ratio 2.3; all p < 0.01). Low levels of PA over time among PLWH are associated with increased cardiometabolic disease risk.

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