Effects of vaccination on acute-phase protein response in broiler chicken

Arash Janmohammadi, Nariman Sheikhi, Hadi Haghbin Nazarpak, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni
PloS One 2020, 15 (2): e0229009
Broiler chickens experience an acute-phase response (APR) through vaccination, which reflects the innate immunity and stress related to immunization. It is also considered that APR can modulate adaptive immunity and response to infection. As biomarkers for APR, assessing the acute-phase proteins (APPs) function and their levels in response to immunization is of great value for vaccine design, development and administration. In this study, the heterophils/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and the level of APPs was evaluated in broilers with three different Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination regimens. Inactivated ND vaccine (IND) was administered by the intramuscular route. Live attenuated strains, Lasota and Vitapest, was administered by ocular routes. H/L ratio, serum amyloid A (SAA) and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) were measured before and after two rounds of vaccination on days 10 and 21. In a comparison between the three vaccines, H/L ratio in IND group significantly increased to 3 fold (1.48 ± 0.41) after the first vaccination while the Lasota and Vitapest showed a milder response. The concentration of SAA increased after 24h by 1.8-fold in IND group (0.116 ± 0.015 mg/L) and 2-fold in Lasota group (0.14 ± 0.002 mg/L). Significant changes were found in Vitapest group after 48h post vaccination (0.113 ± 0.016 mg/L). Elevation pattern of AGP, 24 hours after first vaccination in IND (3.5-fold) and Vitapest (2.5-fold) was different from Lasota in which the peak was reached after 48 hours (2.9-fold). Except for IND group, no significant changes in SAA and AGP concentrations were detected after the second vaccination. A significant positive correlation between SAA values at day 22 and HI titers at day 28 (r = 0.998, P≤0. 0.005) was found. According to these results, different types of ND vaccines can cause different patterns of acute phase responses. Assessment of stress and level of acute-phase proteins can be used for prediction of immune response outcomes in vaccine design and development.

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