Your institution is subscribed to Read Institutional Edition. Log in or Sign Up to read full text articles.


Pediatric Ankle Fractures: When to Operate and When to Leave Alone?

Clarabelle Devries, Zachary Meyer, Joshua M Abzug, Keith D Baldwin, Todd A Milbrandt, Pooya Hosseinzadeh
Instructional Course Lectures 2019, 68: 481-488
Ankle fractures are a common pediatric orthopaedic injury and are the second most common site of physeal injury after the distal radius. Concerns regarding these injuries include the risk of premature physeal closure and intra-articular incongruence with subsequent degenerative changes. Salter-Harris type I and II injuries have high rates of premature physeal closure especially in those with a physeal gap greater than 3 mm and pronation-abduction injuries. The authors of this chapter recommend surgical management if acceptable alignment cannot be obtained with closed reduction. A residual physeal gap is not an appropriate sole indicator for surgical management. Salter-Harris type III and IV injuries also have high rates of premature physeal closure and can result in articular incongruence given their intra-articular nature. The authors of this chapter recommend surgical management of these fractures when intra-articular displacement is greater than 2 mm. Transitional fractures (ie, Tillaux and triplane) occur in older patients during distal tibial physeal closure. Fracture lines travel through the relatively weaker lateral tibial physis, which is the last to close in the transitional period. These intra-articular fractures with displacement greater than 2 mm should be managed surgically to anatomically reduce the articular surface and prevent early degenerative changes.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.