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AA amyloidosis associated with Castleman disease: A case report and review of the literature.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Februrary
RATIONALE: AA amyloidosis (AA) is caused by a wide variety of inflammatory states, but is infrequently associated with Castleman disease (CD). CD describes a heterogeneous group of hematologic disorders that share characteristic lymph node histopathology. CD can present with a solitary enlarged lymph node (unicentric CD, UCD) or with multicentric lymphadenopathy (MCD), constitutional symptoms, cytopenias, and multiple organ dysfunction due to an interleukin-6 driven cytokine storm.

PATIENT CONCERNS: We are reporting a case of a 26-year-old woman with no significant past medical history who presented with a 3-month history of fatigue and an unintentional 20-pound weight loss.

DIAGNOSIS: A CT-scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed hepatosplenomegaly and a mesenteric mass. Congo Red staining from a liver biopsy showed apple-green birefringence and serum markers were suggestive of an inflammatory process. Post-excision examination of the resected mass revealed a reactive lymph node with follicular hyperplasia with kappa and lambda stains showing polyclonal plasmacytosis consistent with CD.

INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent surgery to remove the affected lymph node.

OUTCOMES: IL-6, anemia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytosis resolved or normalized 2 weeks after resection; creatinine normalized 9 months postsurgery. Twenty two months post-surgery her IFN-γ normalized, her fatigue resolved, her proteinuria was reduced by >90% and she had returned to her baseline weight.

LESSONS: Our case and literature review suggest that patients presenting with UCD or MCD along with organ failure should prompt consideration of concurrent AA amyloidosis.

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