[Analysis of the pathogenic characteristics of fungal bloodstream infection in severe burn patients]

C Zhang, Y L Gong, X Q Luo, M X Liu, Y L Shi, T F Liu, H Y Li, Y Z Peng
Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns 2020 January 20, 36 (1): 37-41
Objective: To retrospectively analyze the diagnosis time, pathogen distribution, and drug resistance of fungal bloodstream infection in severe burn patients. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 55 severe burn patients with fungal bloodstream infection (including 46 males and 9 females, aged 42 (1, 78) years) admitted to the intensive care unit of the Institute of Burn Research of the First Affiliated Hospital of Army Medical University (the Third Military Medical University) from July 2011 to May 2019 for retrospective analysis. Microbial monitoring system was used to cultivate pathogens, API yeast identification kit and Candida chromogenic medium were used to identify pathogens, and Kirby-Bauer paper disk diffusion method was used to detect drug resistance of fungi to fluconazole, amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and voriconazole. The positive rate of blood fungal culture, mortality rate, distribution of local fungal proliferation sites, the diagnosis time distribution of fungal bloodstream infection, the distribution of fungal species, resistance to commonly-used antifungal drugs, and the use of antibiotics were assessed. The WHONET 5.6 software was applied to analyze the distribution and drug resistance of fungi. Results: (1) Totally 4 839 blood samples were collected during the 9 years, and 122 strains of fungi were isolated, with positive rate of 2.52%. The mortality rate was 14.55% (8 patients) in 55 patients. Catheter fungal proliferation ranked the first among 30 cases of local fungal proliferation. (2) The diagnosis time of fungal bloodstream infection mainly distributed in ≤1 week of hospitalization [32.73% (18/55)]. (3) Among the 55 strains of fungi detected, the detection rate of Candida parapsilosis ranked the first (21.82%, 12 strains), Candida glabrata was the second (18.18%, 10 strains), and Candida tropicalis was tied with Candida albicans in the third place (14.55%, 8 strains). All the detected fungi were sensitive to amphotericin B, and the resistance rates to voriconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole were between 4.5% and 9.1%. (4) Droad-spectrum antibiotics were used in all the 55 patients, ≥3 kinds of antibiotics were used in 44 patients, and 37 patients used antibacterial drugs ≥7 days. Conclusions: The diagnosis time of fungal bloodstream infection in the 55 severe burn patients was mainly within 1 week of hospitalization. Candida parapsilosis is the most commonly detected fungal species. Catheter fungal proliferation occurs most commonly among the 30 patients with local fungal proliferation. All the detected fungi were sensitive to amphotericin B, with low drug resistance to voriconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were overused in the severe burn patients with fungal bloodstream infection.

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