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Autoantibody Profile of a Cohort of 54 Italian Patients with Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis: LAD-1 Denoted as a Major Auto-antigen of the Lamina Lucida Subtype

Emanuele Cozzani, Giovanni Di Zenzo, Giulia Gasparini, Adele Salemme, Arianna Fay Agnoletti, Camilla Vassallo, Marzia Caproni, Emiliano Antiga, Angelo V Marzano, Riccardo Cavalli, Corrado Ocella, Clara de Simone, Aurora Parodi
Acta Dermato-venereologica 2020 February 3
32011724
Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is characterized by presence of multiple IgA autoantibodies, and a comparatively lesser number of IgG antibodies, directed against different hemidesmosomal antigens. The main autoantigens are LAD-1, LABD-97, BP180 and BP230, type VII collagen and laminin 332. We retrospectively studied the serology of 54 Italian patients with LABD using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting assay, and indirect immunofluorescence on monkey oesophagus and salt-split skin. Among these, indirect immunofluorescence of salt-split skin elicits the greatest sensitivity. Sixty-three percent of the sera were observed to be positive, with a lamina lucida pattern observed in 48%, a sub-lamina densa pattern in 2% and a mixed pattern in 13% of the cases. IgA reactivity to LAD-1 on immunoblotting was found in 52% of sera, to BP180-NC16A by ELISA in 32% and to BP230 in 26%. Only 17% of patients possessed circulating IgG autoantibodies. LAD-1 was determined to be a major autoantigen of the lamina lucida subtype. Combined serological assays demonstrated a high sensitivity (82%), suggesting that this approach could support diagnosis when a biopsy is not feasible or direct immunofluorescence results are negative.

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