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miRNAs and lncRNAs in Echinococcus and Echinococcosis.

Echinococcosis are considered to be potentially lethal zoonotic diseases that cause serious damage to hosts. The metacestode of Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus can result in causing the alveolar and cystic echinococcoses, respectively. Recent studies have shown that non-coding RNAs are widely expressed in Echinococcus spp. and hosts. In this review, the two main types of non-coding RNAs-long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs)-and the wide-scale involvement of these molecules in these parasites and their hosts were discussed. The expression pattern of miRNAs in Echinococcus spp. is species- and developmental stage-specific. Furthermore, common miRNAs were detected in three Echinococcus spp. and their intermediate hosts. Here, we primarily focus on recent insights from transcriptome studies, the expression patterns of miRNAs and lncRNAs, and miRNA-related databases and techniques that are used to investigate miRNAs in Echinococcus and echinococcosis. This review provides new avenues for screening therapeutic and diagnostic markers.

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