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Intracranial CNS Infections: A Literature Review and Radiology Case Studies

Ivy Nguyen, Kyle Urbanczyk, Edward Mtui, Shan Li
Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR 2020, 41 (1): 106-120
Acute infections of the intracranial central nervous system (CNS) often present as neurological emergencies, where missed or delayed diagnosis and treatment can be catastrophic to the patient. Accurate and timely identification of the underlying etiologies, which are critical in directing life-saving therapies, can be achieved through neuroimaging. This article will provide a thorough review of radiologic findings in common infections of the brain, from primarily compartmentalized infections of multimicrobial etiologies, to CNS manifestations of specific immunocompromised-selective pathogens, of herpes simplex virus, and of tuberculosis. We also briefly discuss the epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, treatment guidelines, complications, and long-term sequelae of these infections.

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