Clinical Outcomes With Recurrence After Pleurectomy/Decortication for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

Akifumi Nakamura, Teruhisa Takuwa, Masaki Hashimoto, Ayumi Kuroda, Toru Nakamichi, Seiji Matsumoto, Nobuyuki Kondo, Takashi Kijima, Koichiro Yamakado, Seiki Hasegawa
Annals of Thoracic Surgery 2020, 109 (5): 1537-1543

BACKGROUND: Most patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma experience recurrence after treatment. However no clinical studies have evaluated postrecurrence survival after pleurectomy/decortication for malignant pleural mesothelioma. This study aimed to clarify postrecurrence survival, treatment, prognostic factors, and recurrence pattern after pleurectomy/decortication.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 90 patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by pleurectomy/decortication at our hospital between September 2012 and December 2017. Survival and recurrence were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method with the log-rank test. Clinical factors related to postrecurrence survival were assessed using multivariate analysis with the Cox proportional hazards model.

RESULTS: Of 90 patients, 57 (63.3%) developed recurrence. The 1- and 3-year recurrence-free survival rates were 69.7% and 34.0%, respectively (median recurrence-free survival time, 19.0 months). With regard to initial recurrence, 39 patients (68.4%) developed local recurrence, 6 (10.5%) developed distant recurrence, and 12 (21.1%) developed both local and distant recurrences. The 1-year postrecurrence survival rate was 59.5% (median post-recurrence survival time, 14.4 months). Forty-three patients (75.4%) underwent a postrecurrence treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that postrecurrence treatment (hazard ratio, 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.55; P = .002), performance status 0 to 1 (hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.76; P = .01), and disease-free interval more than 12 months (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.99; P = .04) were the independent, favorable, and significant prognostic factors of postrecurrence survival.

CONCLUSIONS: Postrecurrence survival after pleurectomy/decortication is acceptable, and postrecurrence treatment, performance status, and disease-free interval are important prognostic factors of postrecurrence survival.

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