JOURNAL ARTICLE

Biomarkers predictive of late cardiogenic shock development in patients with suspected ST-elevation myocardial infarction

Martin Frydland, Jacob E Møller, Matias G Lindholm, Rikke Hansen, Sebastian Wiberg, Ole Kristian Lerche Helgestad, Jakob H Thomsen, Jens P Goetze, Thomas Engstrøm, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Hanne B Ravn, Lene Holmvang, Lisette O Jensen, Jesper Kjaergaard, Christian Hassager
European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care 2020 January 21, : 2048872619896063
31961195

BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock complicating ST-elevation myocardial infarction is characterised by progressive left ventricular dysfunction causing inflammation and neurohormonal activation. Often, cardiogenic shock develops after hospital admission. Whether inflammation and a neurohormonal activation precede development of clinical cardiogenic shock is unknown.

METHODS AND RESULTS: In 93% of 2247 consecutive patients with suspected ST-elevation myocardial infarction admitted at two tertiary heart centres, admission plasma levels of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, copeptin, mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin and stimulation-2 were measured on hospital admission. Patients were stratified according to no cardiogenic shock development and cardiogenic shock developed before (early cardiogenic shock) or after (late cardiogenic shock) leaving the catheterization laboratory. In total, 225 (10%) patients developed cardiogenic shock, amongst these patients late cardiogenic shock occurred in 64 (2.9%). All four biomarkers were independently associated with the development of late cardiogenic shock (odds ratio per two-fold increase in risk: 1.19-3.13) even when adjusted for the recently developed Observatoire Régional Breton sur l'Infarctus risk score for prediction of late cardiogenic shock development. Furthermore, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, copeptin and mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin, but not stimulation-2, added significant predictive information, when added to the Observatoire Régional Breton sur l'Infarctus risk score (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide: 0.87, p =0.0008; copeptin: 0.86, p <0.05; mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin: 0.88, p =0.006).

CONCLUSIONS: Pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, copeptin, mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin and stimulation-2 admission plasma concentration were associated with late cardiogenic shock development in patients admitted with suspected ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin and copeptin had independent predictive value for late cardiogenic shock development.

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