Assessment of pharmacogenomic SLCO1B1 assay for prediction of neuromuscular pain in type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular patients: preliminary results

A Licito, G Marotta, M Battaglia, G Benincasa, L Mentone, M R Grillo, V De Lucia, G Leonardi, A Bignucolo, F Comello, R Di Francia, D De Lucia
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 2020, 24 (1): 469-477

OBJECTIVE: At present, several strategies for preventing neuromuscular pain in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have been investigated. Recently, findings on genetic variants associated with adverse events to statin-based therapy have been reported. The study aimed at measuring whether Pharmacogenomics (PGx) profile can affect neuromuscular pain in patients carrying T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. An extensive panel of 5 polymorphisms on 4 candidate genes, previously validated as significant markers related to Sulphonylureas and Glitinides (SU-G) plus Simvastatin neuromuscular toxicity, is herein analyzed and discussed.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We genotyped 76 T2DM patients carrying cardiovascular dyscrasia undergone anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic polypharmacy. 35 subjects out of the total received concurrent SU-G and Statin-based therapy. Candidate variants consisted of drug transporters, such as Solute Carrier Organic 1B1 (SLCO1B1) Val174Ala ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member (ABCB1), subfamily C member 8 (ABCC8), and drug biotransformers of Cytochrome P450 Family (CYP) including CYP2C9*2 CYP2C9*3 CYP2C8*3, and CYP3A4*22. Moreover, we also focused on an early outline evaluation of the genotyping costs and benefits.

RESULTS: 6 out of 35 patients treated with SU-G plus statins (17.1% experienced adverse neuropathy events). Pharmacogenomics analysis showed a lack of any correlation between candidate gene polymorphisms and toxicity, except for the SLCO1B1 T521C allele; 14.3% of patients had a high risk for grade >2 neuromuscular pain (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.61.95% CI 0.90-7.61, p=0.03).

CONCLUSIONS: The clinical polymorphism effectiveness outlined therein will be assured by diagnostic improvements suitable for driving treatment decisions. In light of our experimental results and literature data, the analysis of the SLCO1B1 T521C variant will allow clinicians to take advantage from a better treatment planned for their patients in order to minimize neuromuscular pain and maximize benefits.

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