Cardiovascular risk of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in dialysis patients: a nationwide population-based study

Hyung Ah Jo, Dong Ki Kim, Seokwoo Park, Yaerim Kim, Seung Seok Han, Bo Ram Yang, So-Hyun Choi, Mi-Sook Kim, Joongyub Lee, Hajeong Lee, Jung Pyo Lee, Chun Soo Lim, Yon Su Kim, Kwon Wook Joo
Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation 2020 January 14

BACKGROUND: Given the cardiovascular risk of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), it is essential to identify the relationship between NSAIDs and cardiovascular outcomes in dialysis patients who have elevated cardiovascular risk.

METHODS: A case-crossover study was conducted to assess the association of NSAIDs with major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) and mortality using the Korean Health Insurance dataset. The case period was defined as 1-30 days prior to the event date and the control periods were defined as 61-90 days and 91-120 days prior to the event date.

RESULTS: There were 3433 and 8524 incident dialysis patients who experienced MACCEs and mortality, respectively, after exposure to NSAIDs within 120 days before each event. NSAIDs significantly increased the risk of MACCEs {adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.37 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.50]} and mortality [aOR 1.29 (95% CI 1.22-1.36)]. Nonselective NSAIDs, but not selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, significantly increased the risk of MACCEs and mortality. However, the MACCE and mortality risk did not increase in a dose-dependent manner in the analysis according to the cumulative defined daily dosage of NSAIDs. The incidence of MACCEs in the case period tended to be more common in patients who had recent exposure to NSAIDs than in patients who did not have recent exposure to NSAIDs.

CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should be particularly cautious when prescribing NSAIDs to dialysis patients considering the associations of NSAIDs with cardiovascular outcomes and mortality, which might occur independent of the dose and duration of exposure.

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