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Chronic pelvic pain syndrome/chronic prostatitis: Is it related to human papillomavirus infection? A case-control study from Eastern India.

Urologia 2020 August
INTRODUCTION: Relationship between human papillomavirus infection and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is not clear in the Indian population. The present study evaluated human papillomavirus infection as a risk factor in the development of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

METHODS: Patients between the age group of 18 and 50 years, diagnosed with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (Cases) or sexually active asymptomatic men with primary infertility (Controls), were recruited. Recording of the personal and/or family history and National Institute of Health-chronic prostatitis symptom index scoring (pain score, urinary score, and quality-of-life score) was done in all prostatitis patients. Seminal fluids of all study patients were evaluated for genomic sequences of human papillomavirus including oncogenic subtypes human papillomavirus-16 and -18.

RESULTS: Study participants were divided in cases (n = 50) and controls (n = 50). The mean age of cases and controls were 30.72 and 32.48 years, respectively. Among the cases, the mean duration of symptoms was 9.98 months and mean total National Institute of Health-chronic prostatitis symptom index scoring score and mean International Prostate Symptom Score were 20.52 and 5.8, respectively. Among cases, 26 (52%) were found positive for human papillomavirus infection compared to only 6 (12%) in control group (risk ratio = 0.43; 95% confidence interval = 0.3-0.62; p < 0.001). Infection with human papillomavirus-16 subtype was significantly associated with patients from cases group (χ2  = 4.17; risk ratio (confidence interval) (0.39-0.59); p = 0.041). Oncogenic human papillomavirus-18 subtype was not found in any of the group.

CONCLUSION: These observations indicate that infection with human papillomavirus (HPV-16 subtype) can be considered as a risk factor for the development of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in Indian males under the age of 50 years.

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