Endoscopic Surgery for Thalamic Hemorrhage with Intraventricular Hemorrhage: Effects of Combining Evacuation of a Thalamic Hematoma to External Ventricular Drainage

Yu Shimizu, Katsuhiro Tsuchiya, Hironori Fujisawa
Asian Journal of Neurosurgery 2019, 14 (4): 1112-1115

Objectives: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) caused by thalamic hemorrhage leads to hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure, and reduced levels of consciousness. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and compare the results of endoscopic surgery for the evacuation of a thalamic and intraventricular hematoma against those of external ventricular drainage (EVD) surgery.

Materials and Methods: From January 2010 to December 2018, 68 patients with IVH caused by thalamic hemorrhage were treated in our department. Our study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. The included patients were randomly divided into an EVD group and an endoscopic surgery group. The outcome was measured after 3 months using a 30-day mortality rate, pneumonia onset rate, ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt dependency rate, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score.

Results: Thirty-eight of the 68 patients were randomly assigned to the endoscopic surgery group and 30 were assigned to the EVD group. Patients treated with endoscopic surgery had significantly less drainage dependency on day 30 ( P = 0.00014 < 0.00005) in comparison to those treated with EVD. The difference in the functional outcomes between the two groups of patients was mainly dependent on the onset of pneumonia and the consciousness level at the time of admission. The onset rate of aspiration-related pneumonia until day 30 was 11% in the endoscopic surgery group and 45% in the EVD group. The VP shunt rates were 27.8% in the endoscopic surgery group and 60% in the EVD group. The endoscopic surgery group had a significantly lower VP shunt rate compared with the EVD group. Intracerebral hemorrhage evacuation late was found to be associated with shunt-dependent rate and hospitalization.

Conclusions: Endoscopic surgery was found to be associated with a lower GOS score and lower onset rates for shunt-dependent hydrocephalus and aspiration-related pneumonia in comparison to EVD. High evacuation rate was associated with lower shunt-dependent rate and short hospitalization.

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