Manifestations of Pediatric Extranodal Rosai Dorfman Disease in the head and neck

Mohamedkazim M Alwani, Alhasan N Elghouche, Elizabeth A Schueth, Vincent J Campiti, Bruce H Matt, Abideen O Yekinni
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 2020, 131: 109851

OBJECTIVES: To systematically evaluate the clinico-diagnostic profile and management outcomes of otorhinolaryngologic manifestations of Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman Disease (ENRDD) in the pediatric population.

METHODS: The search terms Rosai Dorfman Disease and Sinus Histiocytosis were used to query PubMed, Ovid/Medline, and Scopus databases from inception through September 30, 2018. Studies were systematically reviewed in accordance to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol. All reports of ENRDD involving at least one otorhinolaryngologic subsite in children less than 18 years were eligible for inclusion.

RESULTS: A total of 31 studies met inclusion criteria resulting in identification of 31 ENRDD cases with a mean age of 11.5 years. Of the 31 patients, 23 were male (74.2%) and 7 were female (22.6%). Extranodal lesions were limited to otorhinolaryngologic subsites in 24 patients (77.4%), while 7 patients (22.5%) were found to have extranodal lesions simultaneously involving otorhinolaryngologic and nonotorhinolaryngologic sites. The nasal vault was the most common otorhinolaryngologic site involved (n = 13, 41.9%), followed by the paranasal sinuses (n = 10, 32.3%). The most common non-otorhinolaryngologic site that was concurrently involved was the orbit (n = 4, 57.1%). Concurrent cervical lymphadenopathy was present in 19 patients (61.2%). While not documented for 2 cases, emperipolesis on histopathology was confirmed in 29 patients (93.5%). Single therapy with surgical excision was the most common modality of treatment (n = 15, 53.6%) and yielded highest remission rates (80%). In 11 instances (34.36%), ENRDD was misdiagnosed.

CONCLUSION: Pediatric ENRDD is a rare disease entity that maintains a high misdiagnosis potential. The most common otorhinolaryngologic location for extranodal manifestation is the sinonasal compartment. Surgical excision remains the most common treatment modality yielding lowest persistence and/or recurrence rates.

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