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Tibial tubercle avulsion fractures in children.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and discuss the fundamentals of pediatric tibial tubercle avulsion fractures (TTAFs) including preferred imaging modalities, systems for fracture classification, frequently associated injuries, treatment options, outcomes, and common complications.

RECENT FINDINGS: Although TTAFs amount to fewer than 1% of all physeal injuries in children, the incidence is increasing, likely because of greater participation in high-level athletics.

SUMMARY: TTAFs tend to occur in adolescents nearing skeletal maturity who engage in sports with repetitive jumping. The most popular classification system was proposed by Ogden, which defines five fracture types based on the fracture pattern and extent of fragment displacement. Treatment can be nonsurgical or surgical, and indications depend on fracture type. Most fractures are surgical candidates and can be repaired with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or arthroscopy. Arthroscopic approaches can reveal associated soft tissue injuries, such as meniscal tears, and confirm articular reduction. The most common postoperative complication is irritation because of hardware. With proper treatment, both nonsurgical and surgical outcomes are excellent. TTAFs have high rates of union and patients typically return to sports.

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