REVIEW
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Skeletal dynamics of Down syndrome: A developing perspective.

Bone 2020 April
Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) display distinctive skeletal morphology compared to the general population, but disparate descriptions, methodologies, analyses, and populations sampled have led to diverging conclusions about this unique skeletal phenotype. As individuals with DS are living longer, they may be at a higher risk of aging disorders such as osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Sexual dimorphism has been suggested between males and females with DS in which males, not females, experience an earlier decline in bone mineral density (BMD). Unfortunately, studies focusing on skeletal health related to Trisomy 21 (Ts21) are few in number and often too underpowered to answer questions about skeletal development, resultant osteoporosis, and sexual dimorphism, especially in stages of bone accrual. Further confounding the field are the varied methods of bone imaging, analysis, and data interpretation. This review takes a critical look at the current knowledge of DS skeletal phenotypes, both from human and mouse studies, and presents knowledge gaps that need to be addressed, differences in research methodologies and analyses that affect the interpretation of results, and proposes guidelines for overcoming obstacles to understand skeletal traits associated with DS. By examining our current knowledge of bone in individuals with Ts21, a trajectory for future studies may be established to provide meaningful solutions for understanding the development of and improving skeletal structures in individuals with and without DS.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app