Driving pressure is not associated with mortality in mechanically ventilated patients without ARDS

Michael J Lanspa, Ithan D Peltan, Jason R Jacobs, Jeffrey S Sorensen, Lori Carpenter, Jeffrey P Ferraro, Samuel M Brown, Jay G Berry, Raj Srivastava, Colin K Grissom
Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum 2019 December 27, 23 (1): 424

BACKGROUND: In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), low tidal volume ventilation has been associated with reduced mortality. Driving pressure (tidal volume normalized to respiratory system compliance) may be an even stronger predictor of ARDS survival than tidal volume. We sought to study whether these associations hold true in acute respiratory failure patients without ARDS.

METHODS: This is a retrospectively cohort analysis of mechanically ventilated adult patients admitted to ICUs from 12 hospitals over 2 years. We used natural language processing of chest radiograph reports and data from the electronic medical record to identify patients who had ARDS. We used multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear models to estimate associations between tidal volume, driving pressure, and respiratory system compliance with adjusted 30-day mortality using covariates of Acute Physiology Score (APS), Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), age, and PaO2 /FiO2 ratio.

RESULTS: We studied 2641 patients; 48% had ARDS (n = 1273). Patients with ARDS had higher mean APS (25 vs. 23, p < .001) but similar CCI (4 vs. 3, p = 0.6) scores. For non-ARDS patients, tidal volume was associated with increased adjusted mortality (OR 1.18 per 1 mL/kg PBW increase in tidal volume, CI 1.04 to 1.35, p = 0.010). We observed no association between driving pressure or respiratory compliance and mortality in patients without ARDS. In ARDS patients, both ΔP (OR1.1, CI 1.06-1.14, p < 0.001) and tidal volume (OR 1.17, CI 1.04-1.31, p = 0.007) were associated with mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: In a large retrospective analysis of critically ill non-ARDS patients receiving mechanical ventilation, we found that tidal volume was associated with 30-day mortality, while driving pressure was not.

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