JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW
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Tranexamic acid in gynecologic surgery.

Objective: To review the mechanism of action, pharmacology, dosing, and complications of tranexamic acid (TXA) and consolidate current evidence for TXA in gynecologic surgery. Methods: A literature search of PubMed, Ovid (MEDLINE), Google Scholar, and Elsevier was performed, in addition to a targeted search of cited references involving TXA and gynecologic surgery. Preference was given to systematic reviews and randomized control trials (RCTs). Results: TXA reversibly binds to plasminogen, preventing clot degradation. RCTs on hysterectomy, myomectomy, cervical conisation, hysteroscopy, and surgery for cervical and ovarian cancer were identified, as were case reports on TXA use for ectopic pregnancy. During hysterectomy, TXA reduces blood loss (two RCTs, n  = 432, mean difference -66.0 mL and 180 mL), blood transfusion (1 RCT, n  = 100, 12% vs. 42%, p  < .00001). For myomectomy, a systematic review and meta-analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in blood loss with TXA (two RCTs, mean difference -213.1 mL, 95% CI: -242.4 mL to -183.7 mL). Following cervical conisation, TXA decreased the risk of delayed hemorrhage (four RCTs, RR 0.23, 95% CI: 0.11-0.50). A single RCT for cervical and ovarian cancer surgery demonstrated a decrease mean blood loss of 120 mL-135 mL and 210 mL, respectively, and fewer blood transfusions for the latter (OR 0.44, upper 95% CI: 0.97, p  = .02). Less robust data suggest a possible benefit from TXA during hysteroscopy and surgery for ectopic pregnancies. Most commonly, 1 g of intravenous TXA is given intraoperatively. Conclusion: TXA is a safe adjunct that can be considered in a variety of gynecologic surgeries to decrease blood loss and risk of blood transfusion.

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