Drug-induced parkinsonism: Revisiting the epidemiology using the WHO pharmacovigilance database

Sibylle de Germay, François Montastruc, Alfonso Carvajal, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre, Jean-Louis Montastruc
Parkinsonism & related Disorders 2019 December 17, 70: 55-59

INTRODUCTION: Drug-Induced Parkinsonism (DIP) is the second most common cause of parkinsonism after idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Little is known about DIP epidemiology. Using VigiBase®, the objective of this study was to assess the main characteristics of DIP reporting around the world.

METHODS: We described reports recorded in the WHO pharmacovigilance database, Vigibase® and classified as "Parkinsonism" between 2000 and 2017. Differences of reporting between geographical locations and characteristics of reports were investigated using disproportionality analysis with calculation of Reporting Odds Ratios (ROR) and its 95% confidence interval.

RESULTS: Among the 9,009,107 reports recorded in VigiBase®, 4565 (0.05%) were DIP. Co reported terms were mainly "tremor" (n = 408, 8.9%), "gait disturbance" (n = 209, 4.6%) and "extrapyramidal disorders" (n = 180, 3.9%). DIP reports were significantly more frequent in men (ROR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.3-1.5) and in patients aged 75 and over (ROR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.98-2.26). Compared to all other continents, risk of reporting drug-induced parkinsonism was higher in Europe (ROR = 2.89; 95% CI 2.73-3.07), Africa (ROR = 1.81; 95% CI 1.46-2.25) and Oceania (ROR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.27-1.77). The risk was lower in Asia (ROR = 0.55; 95% CI 0.51-0.59) and America (ROR = 0.55 95% CI 0.51-0.59). The highest risk of DIP reporting was found with sulpiride and haloperidol followed by risperidone, aripiprazole, paliperidone, metoclopramide, olanzapine, quetiapine and clozapine.

CONCLUSION: Risk of DIP reports was higher in men, in people aged 75 and over and in Europe. Main drugs involved are antipsychotics not only drugs from the first generation but also those from the second one.

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