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Is Piperacillin-Tazobactam Effective for the Treatment of Pyelonephritis Caused by Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Organisms?

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist regarding the efficacy of piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) for the management of nonbacteremic pyelonephritis caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms.

METHODS: We conducted a multicenter observational study comparing clinical outcomes of adults hospitalized with ESBL-producing pyelonephritis who were receiving TZP versus carbapenems, using an inverse probability of treatment weighted propensity score analysis. Patients were eligible for inclusion if all of the following criteria were met: (1) urine cultures growing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, or Proteus mirabilis at ≥50 000 colony-forming units/mL; (2) identification of an ESBL gene; (3) pyuria (≥10 white blood cells per high powered field in the urine); and (4) dysuria and fever plus at least 1 of the following symptoms: emesis, rigors, hypotension, or flank pain.

RESULTS: There were 186 patients included in the propensity score-weighted cohort; 45 (24%) received TZP and 141 (76%) received a carbapenem. Of these 186 patients, 27% were admitted to the intensive care unit, 48% were immunocompromised, and 45% had underlying urologic abnormalities. There were no differences between the 2 groups in the proportion of patients (20% vs 25%) with recurrent cystitis or pyelonephritis with the same ESBL-producing organism within 30 days (odds ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, .31-1.81; P = .52). There were no differences in the resolution of clinical symptoms by Day 7 or in 30-day mortality. There was 1 (2%) patient in the TZP arm and 11 (8%) patients in the carbapenem arm who had incident carbapenem-resistant organisms isolated within 30 days (P = .09).

CONCLUSIONS: TZP may be a reasonable alternative to carbapenems for the management of ESBL-producing pyelonephritis and may mitigate the risk of emergence of carbapenem-resistant organisms, compared with carbapenem therapy.

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