Biological and Clinical Relevance of microRNAs in Mitochondrial Diseases/Dysfunctions

Durairaj Sekar, Jayapriya Johnson, M Biruntha, Ganesh Lakhmanan, Deepa Gurunathan, Kehinde Ross
DNA and Cell Biology 2019 December 18
Mitochondrial dysfunction arises from an inadequate number of mitochondria, an inability to provide necessary substrates to mitochondria, or a dysfunction in their electron transport and a denosine triphosphate synthesis machinery. Occurrences of mitochondrial dysfunction are due to genetic or environmental changes in the mitochondria or in the nuclear DNA that codes mitochondrial components. Currently, drug options are available, yet no treatment exists in sight of this disease and needs a new insight into molecular and signaling pathways for this disease. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous, and noncoding RNAs function as a master regulator of gene expression. The evolution of miRNAs in the past two decades emerged as a key regulator of gene expression that controls physiological pathological cellular differentiation processes, and metabolic homeostasis such as development and cancer. It has been known that miRNAs are a potential biomarker in both communicable and noncommunicable diseases. But, in the case of mitochondrial dysfunction in miRNAs, the number of studies and investigations are comparatively less than those on other diseases and dysfunctions. In this review, we have elaborated the roles of miRNAs in the mitochondrial diseases and dysfunctions.

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