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Percutaneous Valve Interventions in the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Population: Emerging Technologies and Indications.

Adult survivors with congenital heart disease are not cured and residual cardiac valve lesions are common and contribute substantially to long-term morbidity. Given the increased risk of reoperations in patients with previous cardiac surgery, percutaneous treatment options have been developed. Initially percutaneous therapies focused on right ventricular outflow tract lesions, but they have now expanded to include mitral and aortic valve interventions. Although some of these procedures, such as balloon valvuloplasty of pulmonary valve stenosis and percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement, have become standard of care, there are many new and evolving technologies that will likely become important treatment strategies over the coming decade. The key for success of these transcatheter valve procedures is the careful evaluation of the patient's individual anatomy and physiology and a multidisciplinary assessment involving cardiologists specialized in adult congenital heart disease, specialized imagers, cardiac surgeons, and interventionalists. Because many of these percutaneous interventions are relatively new, long-term outcomes are not yet well defined, dictating the need for careful and structured long-term observational studies on outcomes of these novel procedures, which will allow refining the indications of a specific intervention and to improve its technical aspects. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of common valve lesions in the adult congenital heart disease population and to discuss treatment options and strategies with a specific focus on percutaneous options.

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