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IgA pemphigus: A systematic review.

BACKGROUND: The clinical, histologic, and immunopathologic features of IgA pemphigus have not been studied on a large scale.

OBJECTIVE: To synthesize existing data on the epidemiologic, clinical, histologic, and immunologic features of IgA pemphigus.

METHODS: We performed a systematic review using MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Case reports and series of patients with IgA pemphigus were included.

RESULTS: A total of 119 eligible studies, comprising 137 patients with IgA pemphigus with a mean age of 51.5 ± 21.0 years, were included. Most patients presented with vesicles (80.8%), pustules (75.0%), and circinate plaques (63.6%). Pruritus was present in 65.6% of reported patients. Intercellular deposition of IgA was noted in almost all patients (97.0%), and the remaining 3.0% of patients had IgA positivity on indirect immunofluorescence or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirming the diagnosis. IgA circulating intercellular antibodies were detected in only 66.7% patients. IgA gammopathy and ulcerative colitis were associated with IgA pemphigus in 9.5% and 6.6% patients, respectively. Oral dapsone and corticosteroids were the mostly commonly used treatments.

LIMITATIONS: Results are mainly based on case reports and small case series.

CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of IgA pemphigus may be considered in patients presenting with vesiculopustular eruption and circinate plaques with truncal and extremity involvement.

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