A Video-Based, Case-Control Study of Factors Associated With Intraosseous Catheterization During Pediatric Resuscitation

Sang Hoon Lee, Mary Frey, Benjamin T Kerrey, Yin Zhang, Terri Byczkowski, Gary L Geis
Annals of Emergency Medicine 2020, 75 (6): 755-761

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Factors associated with intraosseous (IO) catheterization are not well described. Our objective is to identify factors associated with the attempt and timing of IO catheterization in a pediatric emergency department (ED) resuscitation setting.

METHODS: We completed a video-based, case-control study (1:3 ratio) of children undergoing IO catheterization in the resuscitation area of a high-volume, academic, pediatric ED. We selected 8 independent factors a priori for analysis: younger than 2 years, Glasgow Coma Scale score less than 8, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), parent or caregiver presence, physician team leader with greater than 5 years of pediatric ED experience, 2 or more IO-catheterization-capable staff, ultrasonographically trained nurse vascular access team presence, and resuscitation occurring during the evening (4 pm to midnight) or overnight (midnight to 8 am) shift. We fit linear regression models to analyze for associations with IO access attempts and timing.

RESULTS: One hundred fourteen patients were enrolled; 40 encounters involved IO catheterization (35.1%). Only CPR was associated with IO catheterization (odds ratio 39.0; 95% confidence interval 12.5 to 121.6). Mean time to IO attempt was shorter with CPR (3.2 versus 14.2 minutes) and longer with vascular access team presence (23.5 versus 3.4 minutes) or caregiver presence (10.5 versus 2.6 minutes). Of resuscitations that achieved peripheral intravenous access, only 1 (1.1%) did so in less than 90 seconds.

CONCLUSION: CPR was the only factor associated with IO access attempts, whereas providers may have been more hesitant to attempt IO catheterization with vascular access team or caregiver presence. Future studies should include a larger, multicenter sample and use qualitative methods to explore reasons for IO catheterization hesitancy, especially in the nonarrest scenario.

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