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Fluid resuscitation in trauma: what are the best strategies and fluids?

BACKGROUND: Traumatic injuries pose a global health problem and account for about 10% global burden of disease. Among injured patients, the major cause of potentially preventable death is uncontrolled post-traumatic hemorrhage.

MAIN BODY: This review discusses the role of prehospital trauma care in low-resource/remote settings, goals, principles and evolving strategies of fluid resuscitation, ideal resuscitation fluid, and post-resuscitation fluid management. Management of fluid resuscitation in few special groups is also discussed.

CONCLUSIONS: Prehospital trauma care systems reduce mortality in low-resource/remote settings. Delayed resuscitation seems a better option when transport time to definitive care is shorter whereas goal-directed resuscitation with low-volume crystalloid seems a better option if transport time is longer. Few general recommendations regarding the choice of fluid are provided. Adhering to evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and local modifications based on patient population, available resources, and expertise will improve patient outcomes.

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