JOURNAL ARTICLE

Effects of Inotropes on the Mortality in Patients With Septic Shock

Ryota Sato, Nobuhiro Ariyoshi, Daisuke Hasegawa, Erin Crossey, Natsumi Hamahata, Takuma Ishihara, Michitaka Nasu, Gehan Devendra
Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 2019 December 3, : 885066619892218
31793373

BACKGROUND: Although surviving sepsis campaign guidelines recommend the use of inotropes in the presence of myocardial dysfunction, the effects of inotropes, including epinephrine, dobutamine, and milrinone, on in-hospital mortality in patients with septic shock remains unclear.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an international,2-center, retrospective cohort study. The Cox proportional hazards regression model with time-varying covariates was used to investigate whether epinephrine, milrinone, or dobutamine reduces in-hospital mortality in patients with septic shock. Sensitivity analysis was performed using propensity score matching. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcome included atrial fibrillation (Afib) with a rapid ventricular response (RVR) in the intensive care unit (ICU) and ICU-free days.

RESULTS: A total of 417 patients with septic shock were included, 72 (17.3%) of whom received inotropes. The use of epinephrine and dobutamine was associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality (epinephrine, hazard ratio [HR]: 4.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.12-10.82, P = .001; dobutamine, HR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.30-4.95, P = .046). The effects of epinephrine and dobutamine were time- and dose-dependent. The use of milrinone was not associated with increased mortality (HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.42-2.68, P = .345). The use of epinephrine, dobutamine, and milrinone was associated with significantly increased odds of Afib with RVR (epinephrine, odds ratio [OR]: 3.88, 95% CI: 1.11-13.61, P = .034; dobutamine, OR: 3.95, 95% CI: 1.14-13.76; and milrinone, OR: 3.77, 95% CI: 1.05-13.59). On the other hand, the use of epinephrine, dobutamine, and milrinone was not associated with less ICU-free days (epinephrine, adjusted OR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.09-1.01, P = .053; dobutamine, adjusted OR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.29-2.84; and milrinone, adjusted OR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.19-1.87).

CONCLUSION: The present study showed that the use of epinephrine and dobutamine was associated with significantly increased in-hospital mortality in patients with septic shock. These effects were both time- and dose-dependent. On the other hand, the use of milrinone was not associated with increased in-hospital mortality.

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