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Iodine nutrition in pregnant and breastfeeding women: sufficiency, deficiency, and supplementation

Hossein Delshad, Fereidoun Azizi
Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 2019 November 27
31776808
Iodine is a micronutrient used by the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, which manage different aspects of body metabolism. Humans depend on exogenous sources of iodine to maintain the normal concentration of thyroid hormones. Pregnancy alters iodine turnover and is associated with significant changes in thyroid function. Daily iodine requirement during pregnancy increases to 250 μg, compared with 150 μg for nonpregnant women. According to recent guidelines of scientific organizations, to improve maternal thyroid status and to prevent child neurocognitive defects, all pregnant and breastfeeding women should take 150 μg of iodine supplementation, not only in iodine-deficient regions but also in iodine-sufficient areas. However, some recent studies have confirmed that iodine supplementation of mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women has no clear benefits as concerns maternal thyroid function or child neurodevelopment.

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