Management of Elevated Intracranial Pressure: a Review

Abhinav R Changa, Barry M Czeisler, Aaron S Lord
Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 2019 November 26, 19 (12): 99

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Principles of intracranial pressure (ICP) management continue to be an essential part of the neurointensivist's skillset as appropriate treatment decisions can prevent secondary injury to the central nervous system. This review of the literature aims to: discuss commonly encountered pathologies associated with increased ICP, summarize diagnostic approaches used in evaluating ICP, and present evidence-based treatment paradigms that drive clinical care in intensive care units.

RECENT FINDINGS: Recent topics of discussion include invasive and non-invasive modalities of diagnosis and monitoring, recent developments in hypothermia, hyperosmolar therapy, pharmacological interventions, and surgical therapies. The authors also present an example of an algorithm used within our system of hospitals for managing patients with elevated ICP. Recent advances have shown the mortality benefits in appropriately recognizing and treating increased ICP. Multiple modalities of treatment have been explored, and evidence has shown benefit in some. Further work continues to provide clarity in the appropriate management of intracranial hypertension.

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